In-car timers are one of the...
In-car timers are one of the affordable products aimed at helping drivers cut their lap times.
When a top-line racing team like Roush or Penske goes to a track with a research and development car, they equip it with what looks like enough electronic gear to launch a space shuttle. Engineers can download data on wheelspin, brake pressure, horsepower, steering wheel angle, the temperature of the cold air entering the carburetor, or the heat of the exhaust gas coming out the tailpipe. And that's just the start of it.
The cost? More than what many amateur racers have involved in their entire car, trailer, and tow rig. And even if you can afford something like an elaborate Pi Research data acquisition system, you still have to learn how to interpret what it tells you. If you work for a living and race for fun, there may simply not be enough time in a season to even begin wading through the tidal wave of information available.
But just because you don't have a Penske budget doesn't mean you can't use similar technology to set up a car and improve your driving. All it takes is a bit of money, time, some creative thought, and maybe a few friends. Here are some of the things you can do on the cheap to help make you a better driver and improve the way your car handles.
A caster/camber gauge provides...
A caster/camber gauge provides benchmark information a driver can use to make basic adjustments.
Begin with a squared-up car. Gauges such as the SmarTool let you measure caster and camber and cost under $100. Toe plates cost even less, or you can build them yourself with some square steel tube, a measuring tape, and some aluminum stock. For the truly budget-constrained racer, you can make your own camber measurements with a carpenter's angle finder mounted to a steel square tube the same length as the wheel diameter. The results won't be as accurate as those made with digital units that read to a 100th of a degree, but they'll work until you begin winning prize money and can afford to replace it with something more high tech.
"You've got to have all the wheels going in the right direction," says Gary Lewis, who competes and wins regularly in NASCAR's Raybestos Northwest Series. "The first thing is to get everything tight, then make sure the caster and camber are right and the rear end is squared up. Until you know that, you are just wasting time."
Don't be afraid to begin in a slower division and work your way up to faster cars, Lewis says. It is a lot easier to learn things at lower speeds. The basics are all the same: What you learn on a Street Stock is still valid on a Late Model, and the lessons are far less costly. "I began in a Bomber class, where speeds were lower and you had time to think about things," Lewis says. "Once I moved up to faster cars, everything happened quicker and it was harder to learn."
Lewis says his team videotapes every race and gets together to review it before the next competition. "I can see what I did wrong and what I did right, how I did on restarts and where I left too much room or went too high trying to make a pass," he says. "It is really valuable because the tape remembers things I forget."
Crewmembers can see how the car handles through the corners or accelerates on the straight in comparison to others in the same division, and figure out what they need to do to make it better.
Video recorders can be purchased for well under $100 at discount stores, swap meets, pawnshops, and outlets run by agencies like the Salvation Army or Goodwill. Videotaping is a great job for a crewmember who may be too young to get into the pits, or a spouse who wants to help but isn't interested in spinning wrenches.
While they are invaluable for recording races, video cameras also can be used during testing as the data center for a host of poor-man's racing technology.
Teams graduating to racing's...
Teams graduating to racing's upper levels rely on complex data acquisition systems that use more than a dozen channels to record information.
During testing, try mounting the camcorder inside the car so it will show where the car is on the track in relation to specific landmarks. While testing, have someone time and record each lap. Find the fastest lap and then go through the videotape to see how you drove it. Then see if you can do it again. Once you are consistently running the fast times, begin timing laps in segments and concentrate on individual corners, working to improve each one until your times drop again.
"You have to concentrate on running the perfect line," says Lewis. "During testing you shouldn't be driving around problems with the car, you should be solving them. Once you get the car right, then you can begin trying things."
Think you are a late braker who is on the gas all the time? Install a red light on the dash where the video recorder can see both the light and the track. Wire the bulb into the brake circuit, using either the factory-provided brake light switch or a pressure-activated switch in the brake line. You may be surprised at how early-and how long-you are on the brake pedal. Most drivers aren't nearly as brave as they think ... or tell their crew chief. Using a factory switch, it costs about $2 to add the light to most cars.
You can mount a tachometer next to the red brake light to get a fairly accurate picture of where a driver gets on and off the throttle. It is also a way to check how fast the engine is turning at different points on the track, which could indicate the need for a different rearend ratio.
In-car lap timers, such as the Hot Lap system, are about $270. They use a light beam to trigger a sensor mounted on the rollcage and pointed to the outside of the track. A battery-powered trackside transmitter sends a signal to the in-car receiver each time the car passes it. A dashboard readout instantly gives the driver the last lap time, accurate to 1/100th of a second.
Advantage Motorsports offers...
Advantage Motorsports offers a data acquisition system for under $600 that gathers data on wheel and engine speeds.
By mounting the readout where the video camera can also see it, you can create a visual record of every lap with how you drove it and how long it took. If you are on a track with a lot of landmarks, you can use them to time the car through portions of the track and come up with segment times.
"You can really work on a corner to get it just right," Lewis says. "Sometimes we look for the best line that will carry speed and still save the tires. Finding it sometimes means changing the turn-in point or where I get on the gas by just a little bit. We also use the timer to help us find the perfect qualifying line, the one lap where you just go out and don't worry about the tires."
Lewis says drivers can learn many things from a lap timer. "You have to have some idea of what you are doing to begin with, but that just takes time and thought," he says. "But you have to know how the car works before you know what to change."
Many drivers buy too much data acquisition, says Dave Scaler, owner of Advantage Motorsports. "They end up paying for things they don't need and will never use. And then they get so much data they don't ever begin to approach figuring out what they have, never mind what it means and how to use it."
Scaler's company builds a basic data acquisition system that costs less than a set of race tires. For under $600 the basic Advantage system can gather data on wheel and engine speeds. "If you really think about it, for most circle track applications that's all you need at the amateur level," Scaler says. "That tells you where the car was fast."
Scaler uses the example of a driver who turns laps in the low 19-second range. "His laps are all very close to one another and his crew chief brags about how consistent he is," Scaler says. "But on the first lap he was fast in Turn 1 and on the next lap he was fast in 3. The key is to find out why he was fast in 1 and why he was fast in 3 and make him turn laps where he is fast in both of them."
Steve Hodge says data acquisition...
Steve Hodge says data acquisition equipment helped him quickly learn the nuances of circle track racing.
Because the basic system samples only two sources, even an outdated computer has enough processor horsepower to do the job. "A lot of folks buy the system and dedicate the computer in the closet-the one they were going to throw out-to the race program," Scaler says.
As a team gets more involved and the needs more sophisticated, they can add data on things such as throttle position, brake pressure, and g-loads. "With g-loads we can map the track and overlap laps and really find out where a driver is fast from lap to lap," Scaler says.
Here are some tips on cameras and timers: Mount the camera as high as possible and as near to the driver's line of vision as is practical. While you can make your own mount, commercial ones are about $100 and are much easier to use and adjust. No matter how you mount the camera, add a tether strap to it so, in case of a crash, it doesn't become something else being tossed around inside the car. Also, if you use both a camera and a timer, be sure to switch off the infrared receiver on the camera. If you don't, the timing beacon can switch the camera off (and sometimes on again) when the car passes through the beam.
For the past decade, Steve Hodge was among the most serious contenders in sports car racing on the West Coast. He campaigned a Camaro in the Trans Am series and won the Sports Car Club of America's Rose Cup (among the club's most significant races) an unprecedented four times in a row. Then he decided to go circle track racing.
"It was a pretty steep learning curve," says Hodge, an engineer for Warn Industries, who helps sponsor his Monte Carlo. "We found out there was a lot we didn't know."
Some of what they did know-data acquisition-helped them flatten the learning curve. When Hodge, his father, and brother built their new car, they transferred the SPA data logging system from the road course to the circle track machine.
On Hodge's Chevrolet, the SPA system records suspension movements, g-loads, engine speed and throttle position. The data is transferred to a laptop computer where it gives a visual record, or trace, of everything the car did on every lap.
"For a guy just beginning, the biggest advantage with the data acquisition is being able to compare what a new driver does to someone who really knows how to hustle a car around an oval," Hodge says. "I could go out and run laps and then put someone with a lot of experience in the car and lay my trace right on top of his to see where they are different."
Among the things Hodge learned is that many oval-track cars are set up with the wrong gearing.
"Drivers want to have lots of power coming off the corners, but by looking at the throttle position and engine speeds, we figured a lot of guys are on the downside of the torque curve at the end of the straights," he says.
He was also surprised at the amount of wheel movement. "We think that right-front corner just takes a set and is fully loaded going around a corner, but it is really moving up and down a lot," he says.
Hodge also says the system help him overcome every driver's tendency to compensate for the car. "I'd find myself playing with the throttle through the corners to help get the car to take a set and turn in, but what I was really doing was driving around a handling situation we needed to overcome," he says.
The system Hodge uses retails for around $2,000. Just a few years ago it would have been nearly five times that much. Hodge says if a driver asks around, it is possible to rent equipment for pre-season testing.